What is polycystic ovary syndrome?

Qu'est-ce que le syndrome des ovaires polykystiques ?

What is polycystic ovary syndrome?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disease that affects 5 to 10% of women (roughly one in ten), making it the most common hormonal disease in women of childbearing age. This disease is due to a hormonal imbalance in the ovaries and/or the brain of two hormones (FSH and LH), which are responsible for the menstrual cycle. This leads to an increase of testosterone in the blood.

The nomenclature of spok refers to the accumulation of what was thought at the time to be small cysts around the ovaries. In reality, these are follicles that do not grow during the final stage of the follicular phase and accumulate. This disease therefore disrupts egg production, which makes it a major cause offemale infertility.

What are the symptoms of polycystic ovaries?

The symptoms of this disease are very broad and usually occur at puberty, but can appear later. It can be very mild but can be disabling.

Among these symptoms are depression and sleep apnea. But also an increase in the size of the ovaries, ovulation disorders (irregular cycles, amenorrhea) which induce infertility in almost half of the women affected by the disease, but also increased risks of miscarriage and premature delivery. The disease often induces hyperpilosity.The disease often induces hyperpilosity, acne and hair loss which are due to the overproduction of testosterone. It can also cause an increased risk of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes, as well as an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. PCOS also increases the risk of developing female cancer (endometrium, breast, ovary).

The diagnosis of this disease is made by a gynecologist, endocrinologist or physician. To establish that a woman suffers from PCOS, an interrogation on the family history is first conducted by because for the moment heredity is the only suspected factor. Then, an analysis of the menstrual cycles, a clinical examination, an ultrasound of the ovaries and hormonal measurements are performed.

What is the treatment for this disease?

For the moment, there is no treatment that can cure the disease. However, some symptomatic treatments until the menopause are possible and generally help to prevent complications, in particular by adopting a better lifestyle.

Sometimes, weight loss reduces the level of testosterone in the body, regulates somewhat the appearance of irregular periods and has a possible positive effect on fertility. In addition, drug treatments or psychological support can be considered. For example, for hyperpilosity, an estrogen-progestin pill is often prescribed at first, then anti-androgens if that is not enough. For what concernsacnebut also hyperpilosity, cyproterone acetate is often prescribed.

If you suffer or think you suffer from PCOS, we advise you to turn to your doctor or to specialized doctors who will be able to prescribe a treatment that will reduce the symptoms of the disease. In any case, we will be able to accompany you during your period with the Elia menstrual panties!

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